Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar | History, Architecture, Festival

Lingaraja Temple

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Lingaraja Temple is a Hindu temple devoted to Shiva and is among the oldest temples in Bhubaneswar, the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. The temple is probably the most distinguished landmark of Bhubaneswar metropolis and one of many main vacationer points of interest of the state.

The Lingaraja temple is the most important temple in Bhubaneswar. The central tower of the temple is 180 ft tall. The temple represents the quintessence of the Kalinga Architecture and culminating within the medieval phases of the architectural custom at Bhubaneswar. The temple is believed to be constructed by the kings from the Somavamsi dynasty, with later additions from the Ganga rulers. The temple is constructed within the Deula model that has 4 parts specifically, vimana, Jaganmohan, Nata Mandira and bhoga-mandap, every growing within the peak to its predecessor. The temple complicated has 50 different shrines and is enclosed by a big compound wall.

Lingaraja temple is maintained by the Temple Trust Board and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The temple has a median of 6,00zero guests per day and receives lakhs of tourists throughout festivals. Shivaratri pageant is the main pageant celebrated within the temple and occasion throughout 2012 witnessed 200,00zero guests. The temple compound just isn't open to non-Hindus, however, there's a viewing platform beside the wall providing a superb view of the primary exteriors. This was initially erected for a go-to by Lord Curzon when Viceroy.

History


Central vimana and temples within the Lingaraja Temple complicated.
Minor temples within the Lingaraja Temple complicated.
Lingaraja, actually means the king of Lingam, the long-lasting type of Shiva. Shiva was initially worshipped as Kirtivasa and later as Harihara and is often known as Tribhuvaneshwara, the grasp of three worlds, specifically, heaven, earth, and the netherworld. His consort known as Bhuvaneshvari.

The temple in its current type dates again to the final decade of the eleventh century. There is proof that a part of the temple was constructed in the course of the sixth century CE as talked about in a number of the seventh century Sanskrit texts. Fergusson believes that the temple might need to be been initiated by Lalat Indu Keshari who reigned from 615 to 657 CE. The Assembly corridor, sanctum, and temple tower have been constructed in the course of the eleventh century, whereas the Hall of providing was constructed in the course of the twelfth century. The Nata Mandira was constructed by the spouse of Salini between 1099 and 1104 CE. By the time the Lingaraja temple was utterly constructed, the Jagannath sect had been rising within the area, which historians imagine, is evidenced by the co-existence of Vishnu and Shiva worship on the temple. The kings of the Ganga dynasty have been ardent followers of Vaishnavism and constructed the Jagannath Temple at Puri within the 12th century.

As per some accounts, the temple is believed to have been constructed by the Somavanshi king Yayati I (1025-1040), in the course of the 11th century CE. Jajati Keshari shifted his capital from Jajpur to Bhubaneswar which was known as Ekamra Kshetra within the Brahma Purana, a historic scripture. One of the Somavamsi queens donated a village to the temple and the Brahmins connected to the temple acquired beneficial grants. An inscription from the Saka yr 1094 (1172 CE) signifies items of gold cash to the temple by Rajaraja II. Another inscription of Narasimha I from the 11th century signifies the provision of betel leaves as tabula to the presiding deity. Other stone inscriptions within the temple point out royal grants from Chodaganga to the close by village individuals.

Architecture

Temple plan for 4 spires of a temple
Temple plan of Lingaraja temple: from the highest vimana, Jaganmohan, Nata Mandira, and bhoga-mandapa.

Lateral view of Liṅgarāja temple, Bhubaneśvara.
The Lingaraja temple is the most important temple in Bhubaneswar. James Fergusson (1808–86), a famous critic and historian rated the temple as "one of the finest examples of purely Hindu temple in India". It is enshrined inside a spacious compound wall of laterite measuring 520 ft by 465 ft. The wall is 7.5 ft thick and surmounted by a plain slant coping. Alongside the interior face of the boundary wall, there's a terrace to guard the compound wall towards outdoor aggression. The tower is 45.11 m excessive and the complicated has 150 smaller shrines in its spacious courtyard. Each inch of the 55 m tall tower is sculpted. The door within the gate of the doorway porch is made from sandalwood.

The Lingaraja temple faces east and is constructed of sandstone and laterite. The foremost entrance is situated within the east, whereas there are small entrances within the north and south. The temple is constructed within the Deula model that has 4 parts specifically, vimana, Jaganmohan, Nata Mandira, and bhoga-mandapa, with all 4 in axial alignment with descending peak. The dance corridor was related to the rising prominence of the devadasi system that existed in the course of the time. The varied items from the Hall of providing to the tower of the sanctum enhance in peak.


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Religious significance

The flag of the temple mounted to a Pinaka bow.
Bhubaneswar is known as the Ekamra Kshetra because of the deity of Lingaraja was initially underneath a mango tree. Ekamra Purana, a Sanskrit treatise of the 13th century mentions that the presiding deity was not seen because of the lingam in the course of the Satya and Treta yugas and solely in the course of the Dwapara and Kali yugas, it emerged as a lingam.

attributed the rising prominence of the Jagannath sect that grew to become predominant in the course of the development of the temple. The Gangas transformed the temple and launched sure Vaishnavite parts like photos of Vaishnava Dwarapalas specifically Jaya and Prachanda, Jagannatha, Lakshmi Narayan and Garuda have been put in. Tulsi leaves, that are favored by Vishnu, have been used together with Bela leaves for the worship of Lingaraja. Lingaraja thus got here to be generally known as Harihara, a mixture of Shiva and Vishnu. The flag of the temple was mounted to a Pinaka bow as an alternative of trident normally present in Shiva temples.


Festival and worship practices

Hanging garlands made from Marigold provided to the central deity
Varieties of Marigold for providing to Lingaraja throughout Shivaratri at Bhubaneswar. As per Hindu legend, an underground river originating from the Lingaraja temple fills the Bindusagar Tank and the water is believed to heal bodily and religious sickness. The water from the tank is thus handled sacred and pilgrims take a holy dip throughout festive events. The central deity of the temple, Lingaraja, is worshipped each as Shiva and Vishnu. The concord between the 2 sects of Hinduism, Shaivism, and Vaishnavism, is seen on this temple the place the deity is worshipped as Harihara, a mixed type of Vishnu and Shiva.
                                    
Rukuna Ratha yatra is an annual Ratha yatra of Lingaraja
Shivaratri is the primary pageant celebrated yearly in Phalgun month when hundreds of devotees go to the temple. Apart from a full day of fasting, bel leaves are provided to Lingaraja on this auspicious day. The foremost celebrations happen at night time when devotees pray all night time lengthily. The religious normally break their quick after the Mahadipa is lit on the spire of the temple. This pageant commemorates Lingaraja having slain a demon. Thousands of bol bom pilgrims carry water from river Mahanadi and stroll all the way in which to the temple in the course of the month of Shravana yearly. Sunian day is noticed from royal occasions within the month of Bhadra, a day when temple servants, peasants and different holders of temple lands provide loyalty and tribute to Lingaraja. Candan Yatra (Sandalwood ceremony) is a 22-day pageant celebrated within the temple when servants of the temple disport themselves in a specifically made barge in Bindusagar tank. The deities and servants of the temples are anointed with sandalwood paste to guard against warmth. Dances, communal feasts, and merrymaking are organized by the individuals related to the temple.

Every yr the chariot pageant (Ratha-Yatra) of Lingaraja is well known on Ashokashtami. The deity is taken in a chariot to Rameshwar Deula temple. Thousands of devotees observe and pull brightly embellished chariots containing the idols of Lingaraja and his sister Rukmani.

Religious practices

The Lingaraja temple is open from 6 a.m. to about 9 p.m. and is intermittently closed throughout bhoga to the deity. During the early morning, lamps within the cella are lit to awaken Lingaraja from his sleep, ablution is carried out, adopted by adoration and arati. The temple is closed at about 12 midday till about 3.30 p.m. A ceremony is named Mahasnana is carried out as soon as the doorways are closed, adopted by pouring of Panchamrita upon the deity for purification. At about 1:00 p.m., a ripe plantain is split into two, one half is obtainable to Sun god and the opposite half to Dwarapala. Between 1 p.m. and 1:30 p.m., the meals providing known as Ballabha Bhoga is obtainable to the deity. The consecrated meals are carried to the temple of Parvati and positioned earlier than her as a providing, a apply generally noticed by the orthodox Hindu housewives. At about 2 p.m., the Sakala Dhupa takes place. After the meals are obtainable to Lingaraja, the choices are carried to the temple of Parvati to serve her. A provision known as Bhanda Dhupa is carried out at 3:30 p.m. on the corridor of the providing. This meal is later provided by the inmates to the pilgrims as Mahaprasada.

A light-weight refreshment generally known as Ballabha Dhupa is obtainable to the deity at round 4:30 p.m. At round 5:00 p.m., Dwipahar Dhupa is obtainable. At around 7 p.m., one other providing known as Palia Badu is positioned earlier than the deity. Sandhya arati is carried out throughout that point. Another mild meal known as Sahana Dhupa is obtainable at round 8:30 p.m. After the meals, the ceremony of waving mild is carried out earlier than the deity. At 9.30 p.m., the final service of the day, Bada Singara is carried out when the deity is embellished with flowers and ornaments after which a light-weight meal providing is made. A picket palanquin is laid within the room, incense is lighted, consuming water is served and ready betel is positioned. Panchatantra Mahadeva involves the palanquin and returns to his personal abode after the arati is carried out. This is a bronze picture of Mahadeva having 5 faces and Parvati in his lap. Each of those ceremonies is accompanied by ritual observances and recitations of mantras specified for every event.

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Temple workers and administration

In fashionable occasions, the Lingaraja temple monks are from three communities, specifically Pujapanda Nijog, Brahman Nijog, and Badu Nijog. The Badu are non-Brahmin servant teams, whose origin just isn't ascertained because of the unavailability of genuine data, whereas they're described as Vadu in chapter 62 of the Ekamrapurana. The caste group of Badu known as Niyoga, which elects the officers yearly in the course of the Sandalwood pageant. Every Badu undergoes three distinct rites, specifically, ear-piercing, marriage, and god-touching. Historically, the Badu's carried out 5 totally different temple duties - Paliabadu and Pharaka, which have been thought of as essential and Pochha, Pahada and Khataseja, which have been thought of inferior. From 1962, solely Paliabadu and Pharaka practices are adopted and the others are discontinued. The Badus additionally perform ablution and dressing of the photographs of Siddhaganesh and Gopalini. The temple is maintained by the Temple Trust Board and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The temple is guarded by safety personnel deputed by the Police Commissioner of Bhubaneswar and safety guards appointed by the temple administration. The temple has a median of 6,00zero guests every single day and receives lakhs of tourists throughout festivals. The Shivaratri pageant in 2012 witnessed 200,00zero guests. As of 2011, the annual revenue of the Lingaraja temple from hundis is around 1.2 million every year. Another Four million is collected yearly from different sources like rents from outlets, cycle stands, and agriculture lands. Starting in 2011, the temple prices an quantity for six sorts of non-secular worship carried out by the devotees.

Lingaraja Temple Location with Map


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